Meaning of Crop

A crop is any plant grown for specific purpose. Crops supply food, fibre, herbs and other useful materials. To properly distinguish one crop from another, Agricultural Scientists have come out with ways by which Agricultural crops are classified. Crops are classified into three based on a. Uses b. Lifecycle c. Morphology

Classification of Crops based on Uses

  1. Cereal Crops- These are crops that belong to poacea family. They are rich source of carbohydrate e.g. Maize, Rice, Wheat, Sorghum, Millet, Oat and Barley.
  2. Legumes – Legumes belong to the family fabacea and are rich source of proteins. They are noted for fixing atmospheric nitrogen into the soil by a bacterium known as Rhizobium leguminosarium. Examples of pulses /legumes include Cowpea, Soyabean, Pigeon pea, Groundnut and Bambara nut.
  3. Roots and tuber crops – These crops produce tubers under the ground, either in the root or stem. They are rich source of carbohydrate e.g. Cassava, Yam, Sweet potato, Cocoyam and Irish Potato.
  4. Fruit crops – These crops have succulent fruit which are consumed fresh. They are rich source of vitamins and minerals essential for healthy human growth e.g. Mango, pawpaw, pineapple, cashew, guava, water melon, oranges, pears and apple.
  5. Beverages Crops – These crops provide fruit drinks after processing e.g. cocoa, coffee, tea and kola nut.
  6. Vegetable crops – These are grown for their edible vegetative parts such as leaves, fruits or roots which can be eaten fresh or cooked. They are rich in vitamins and minerals essential for healthy human growth e.g. Amaranthus, Okra, Eggplants, Waterleaf, lettuce, Celosia, Pumpkin, tomato, e.t.c.
  7. Spices – These crops add flavor to our food e.g. ginger, pepper, garlic, onion, e.t.c.
  8. Oil Crops – These crops produce oil when processed and can be used for cooking, making soap, margarine, e.t.c Examples are oil palm, groundnut, cotton, sheabutter, soybean, melon, sunflower, e.t.c.
  9. Fibre Crops – These crops are used for making cloths, ropes and sacks e.g. Cotton, Kenaf, Jute, Sisal, Hibiscus and Wild hemp.
  10. Latex – These crops produce whitish sticky liquid called latex used for making plastics, tyres e.t.c.


  1. Mention the two classes of crops that are essential for healthy human growth.
  2. State 8 Classes of crops based on uses.
  3. State the basis of classifying crops.