• POLITICAL PARTIES – Political parties are the registered bodies of people with common political interest. They are organized people with primary purpose of gaining political power. Nigeria has about ninety- nine political parties. Some of these parties are people’s Democratic Party (PDP), All Progressive Congress ( APC),  All Progressive Grand Alliance(APGA), etc.


  1. Political parties conducts primary election among their members.
  2. Political parties mobilizes people into the party.
  3. Political parties criticizes the government.
  4. Political parties campaigns for their candidates.
  5. Political party serves as a training ground for the future political leaders.
  6. Political parties assists to recruit leaders into public offices to administer the house.

The three arms of government that we have in Nigeria are:

  • The Executive
  • The legislative
  • The Judiciary


The Executive arm of government is responsible for policy making and implementation. They are also responsible for implementation, execution and enforcement of laws made by the legislature. The Federal executive is headed by the President, the State executive is headed by the state governor, and that of local government is headed by Chairman of the local government.

                        FUNCTIONS OF THE EXECUTIVE

  1. It plays the role of policy formulation.
  • Maintenance of law and order.
  • Appointment of government functionaries
  • It advises the legislature if there is need to amend constitution
  • It imposes curfew whenever there is chaos and commotion in the state or country.


This is the arm of government that is responsible for law making. It is otherwise known as parliament. It is a place where important decisions are made.

                        TYPES OF LEGISLATURE

There are two types of legislature, namely;

  • Unicameral legislature
  • Bicameral legislature

UNICAMERAL: this is the existence of one legislative chamber in a country. It is a situation whereby there is only one legislative house that makes law.

BICAMERAL: This is the type of legislature with two legislative houses. Country like Nigeria practice bicameral legislature which comprises House of Senate (Upper House) and House of Representatives (Lower House) the two are called National Assembly.

The senate has one hundred and nine(109) members , each state being represented by three senators and one from the federal capital territory. It is headed by senate president.

The House of Representatives has three hundred and sixty (360) members. The number of representatives from each state depends on the population of the state. It is headed by the Speaker.

                                    FUNCTIONS OF THE LEGISLATURE

  1. Law making
  2. It controls and monitors the raising and spending of money in the country.
  3. It has the power to play leading role in constitution amendment.
  4. It has the right to investigate any government department so as to ascertain how funds are spent.
  5. The legislature has power to impeach the president if he commits serious offence.
  6. The legislature has power of dissolution of the parliament when it deems it necessary or at its expiration.


This is the organ of government that is responsible for interpretation of law.

                                    FUNCTIONS OF THE JUDICIARY

  1. It interprets the laws of the country.
  2. It applies existing laws to individual cases.
  3. Through courts, the judiciary deals with cases.
  4. The judiciary has power to punish offenders.
  5. It safeguards the rights of the citizens.
  6. It protects the constitution.
  7. It determines election petitions.