An Election can be defined as an act of process of voting for a candidate to represent the people of a country in the various aims of government. It could as well be defined as a formed process of selecting a person for public office. It also refers to means by which the people in a country make political choices by voting for competing candidates or parties.

            It is also a procedure that allows members of an organization or community to choose representatives who will hold position of authority.

The concepts of election implies that the voters have alternatives and can choose among a number of proposals designed to settle an issue of public concerns.

VOTING: Is a process through which someone shows  support for a candidate standing election into an elective office or position. It is the political right of citizens to choose one of all candidates to represent them as a group in the society in public offices.

A voter is a person  who is eligible to participate in voting. Voters can also referred to as the “Electorates”.

In Nigeria, a voter is a citizen who is 18 years old and above and is duly registered to elect political office holders


1.         Direct Election: This is the process by which voters directly to elect their representatives for public office.

2.         Indirect Election: This implies a system whereby eligible voters select representatives who could make the final selection of leaders on their behalf. This involves the use of electoral college.

3.         Electoral College: This is a body of elected representatives who assist in electing other political or public offices.

4.         By-Election: This refers to an election that is conducted to fill a vacant elective part due to recall or resignation or death of an individual holding a given political office.

5.         Run-Off Election: This is an election that is reconducted due to disqualification or malpractice or annulment of the initial polls or election. It is usually ordered by election tribunal or court.

6.         Referendium. This is a “ Yes” or “No” vote of the people particularly on law in a given political system. It helps the government in knowning  the opinion of people about an important issues of national interest or concern.

7.         Primary Election: This refers to an election conducted within the party to elect the flag bearer of the party.

8.         General Election: This is the type of election in which electorates through out the country elect their representatives into political offices.