Farm Machineryare Mechanical devices including tractors and implements used in farming to save labour. Farm machines include a great variety of devices with a wide range of complexity: from simple hand-held implements to the complex harvesters of modern mechanized agriculture.

Usually, non hand-held implement are driven by machines. The commonest of type these machine is the Tractor.


Exhaust PipeHead LampMirrorSteering WheelDriver/Operator seatBig Chunky TireGear leverSmall front Tyre


Fig 2.1: A tractor Diagram

Some Features of a tractor

  1. It has four wheels. The tyre treading is designed diagonally and large(rear tyres especially) to provide traction for movement in the mud, sand and dirt as peculiar to farm terrains.
  2. It uses internal combustion engines which uses diesel or petrol but without spark plugs.
  3. It has a drawbar behind it, attached to the chassis (Its frame or body). This is used to attach and pull the used implement, cart or wagon.
  4. It operates on a gear transmission as in a manual car.
  5. It has a Power take-off (PTO). This rotating shaft powers mechanized attachments while the tractor is at a standstill. It’s driven by the engine and mounted underneath or at the rear of the tractor.
  6. It has hydraulic control system which lifts implements under the control of the operator.
  7. Popular brands or models of tractors are David Brown, Massey Ferguson, Ford, Fiat, Caterpillar e.t.c.

Functions of a Farm Tractor

  1. It is used for transportation and haulage of farm produce.
  2. It can be used to power water pumps for irrigation and power other farm machines.
  3. It is used to pull farm implements like harvester, ploughs e.t.c
  4. It can also be used to provide electricity to the farm house.
  5. It most importantly help to make farm processes faster and efficient.
  6. It reduces the need for and cost of labour.


Fig 2.2: A Bulldozer

Features of Bulldozers

  1. It is made of very hard steel with a steel bucket in front.
  2. It has a tract type metal chain used for its movement.
  3. It has an internal combustion engine which powers it.
  4. The builder track metal chain moves with the aid of driving sprocket, track rollers and idler rollers.


  1. Bulldozers are used for bush clearing especially virgin or untilled ground.
  2. It is used for felling trees and removing stumps.
  3. It is used for levelling the ground.
  4. It is used to construct roads on farms especially in the rural/remote sites.
  5. It is used for moving and collection of earth.


 The bulldozer is a heavy earth moving equipment. Hence has the following disadvantages in land preparation.

  1. It destroys the soil structure.
  2. It causes a reduction in soil fertility.
  3. It causes compaction of soil.
  4. It can cause pollution. (Air, Noise and land pollutions).
  5. It is expensive.
  6. It can cause soul erosion.


Fig 2.3: An Egg Incubator


Incubators are machines used for hatching fertilized eggs artificially.

Incubators can use different type of fuel it uses to generate heat. These are Oil lamp, electricity, gas, charcoal, e.t.c.

The number of days it takes for an egg to hatch depends on the specie of the bird. For our domestic chicken it takes just 21 days.


  1. Natural draught/ table type
  2. Forced draught or Cabinet type

(Read More about this)


Before fertilized eggs are placed, the incubator should have be run for about 12-24 hours. For eggs to hatch the incubator must meet the following atmospheric state;

  1. Temperature of 37̊C-39̊C
  2. Relative Humidity of 50%-70%
  3. Adequate ventilation.


An incubator is made up of a setter and a hatcher. The fertilized eggs stays in the setter for 18 days while for the remaining three days before hatching the eggs are placed in the hatcher.

The important parts of an incubator are as follows;

  1. Heat source. As explained earlier it could be an electric heater, gas heater, e.t.c.
  2. Control Unit that has heat thermostat, hygrometer (regulates humidity).
  3. Heat distribution Unit. That has fans, heat extractor and ventilators.
  4. Trays to hold eggs
  5. Egg turning device.
  6. Insulator to prevent heat loss.

NB: After hatching of egg the following is done;

  1. Sexing of chicks(Separating the sexes).
  2. Drying of chicks.
  3. Intra ocular Newcastle Disease Vaccination.
  4. Sorting out abnormal chicks.
  5. Packaging of normal chicks.


TapGaugeVacuum ControllerTrap PailVacuum PumpMotorPowerTeat Cup

Fig 2.4: A Milking Machine

Pasteurization is the process at which milk is made fit for human consumption.

Economic Importance of Milk

  1. It is a good and readily available source of protein especially for children.
  2. It can be used to foster young mammals including humans.
  3. It is used in the preparation of baby feeding formula.
  4. It is used as extender for artificial insemination.
  5. It is used in preparation of dairy products such as butter, cheese, yogurt, e.t.c.


  1. Feed trough
  2. Cheese Cloth
  3. Milking Chute
  4. Health and Medical tools
  5. Silage fork
  6. Milk test cup
  7. Drenching bottles
  8. Milking pails
  9. Loading ramp/chute
  10. Water trough
  11. Forage dryer
  12. Baler
  13. Burdizzo
  14. Buckets
  15. Forage harvester
  16. Tatooing/numbering tools
  17. Auger


  1. Stones/Pebbles
  2. Bacteria
  3. Urine
  4. Dirts from tools
  5. Droplets from sick animals
  6. Excreta
  7. Straw/haySilage
  8. Body hair
  9. Insects
  10. Cobwebs
  11. Dusts

These are implements attached to a tractor to power it. Examples are ploughs, harrows, ridgers, planters, cultivators, harvesters, sprayer, mower, baler, fertilizer, applicator and harvester.

           THE PLOUGH

  The plough is a tillage (Soil cultivation) implement. It is usually the first implement employed for land preparation.

           There are two types;


Fig 2.1: Disc Plough

The Disc plough is a tilling implement adapted to tropical environment where the soil contains stones, hard parts and root of plants.

Parts of the Disc ploughs and their Functions

  1. Beam or Frame: It holds disc in position or for attachment of the discs.
  2. Scrapper: It helps to remove soil or mud that cling to the disc.
  3. Standard: It holds the disc firmly to the beam.
  4. Furrow wheel spring: It acts as a shock absorber for the plough during movement.
  5. Frame extension: It covers the hollow end of the beam.

Read up Other Farm Implements, functions and their specific maintenance requirements from your Textbook!

Review Questions

  1. a. Explain the following terms;
  2. Primary Tillage implement, ii. Secondary tillage implement
  3. i. State three reasons why disc plough is more suitable for soils in West Africa that Mouldboard plough. ii. List six major parts of a disc plough and functions.
  4. Give three reasons why secondary tillage is necessary before sowing seeds.
  5. State three precautions a farmer should take when spraying chemicals

(WASSCE; June 2007).

  • a. Give one function of each of the following components of an incubator.
  • Counter ii. Thermostat  iii. Hygrometer  iv. Egg tray v. Heater

b. List four tractor coupled implements.

(WASSCE; June, 2009)

  • a. Mention four uses of tractor.
  • List four components of an incubator.