Farm Machineryare Mechanical devices including tractors and implements used in farming to save labour. Farm machines include a great variety of devices with a wide range of complexity: from simple hand-held implements to the complex harvesters of modern mechanized agriculture.
Usually, non hand-held implement are driven by machines. The commonest of type these machine is the Tractor.
Exhaust PipeHead LampMirrorSteering WheelDriver/Operator seatBig Chunky TireGear leverSmall front Tyre
Fig 2.1: A tractor Diagram
Some Features of a tractor
It has four wheels. The tyre treading is designed diagonally and large(rear tyres especially) to provide traction for movement in the mud, sand and dirt as peculiar to farm terrains.
It uses internal combustion engines which uses diesel or petrol but without spark plugs.
It has a drawbar behind it, attached to the chassis (Its frame or body). This is used to attach and pull the used implement, cart or wagon.
It operates on a gear transmission as in a manual car.
It has a Power take-off (PTO). This rotating shaft powers mechanized attachments while the tractor is at a standstill. It’s driven by the engine and mounted underneath or at the rear of the tractor.
It has hydraulic control system which lifts implements under the control of the operator.
Popular brands or models of tractors are David Brown, Massey Ferguson, Ford, Fiat, Caterpillar e.t.c.
Functions of a Farm Tractor
It is used for transportation and haulage of farm produce.
It can be used to power water pumps for irrigation and power other farm machines.
It is used to pull farm implements like harvester, ploughs e.t.c
It can also be used to provide electricity to the farm house.
It most importantly help to make farm processes faster and efficient.
It reduces the need for and cost of labour.
Fig 2.2: A Bulldozer
Features of Bulldozers
It is made of very hard steel with a steel bucket in front.
It has a tract type metal chain used for its movement.
It has an internal combustion engine which powers it.
The builder track metal chain moves with the aid of driving sprocket, track rollers and idler rollers.
FUNCTIONS/USES OF BULL DOZERS
Bulldozers are used for bush clearing especially virgin or untilled ground.
It is used for felling trees and removing stumps.
It is used for levelling the ground.
It is used to construct roads on farms especially in the rural/remote sites.
It is used for moving and collection of earth.
DISADVANTAGES OF USING BULDOZERS FOR LAND PREPARATION
The bulldozer is a heavy earth moving equipment. Hence has the following disadvantages in land preparation.
It destroys the soil structure.
It causes a reduction in soil fertility.
It causes compaction of soil.
It can cause pollution. (Air, Noise and land pollutions).
It is expensive.
It can cause soul erosion.
Fig 2.3: An Egg Incubator
Incubators are machines used for hatching fertilized eggs artificially.
Incubators can use different type of fuel it uses to generate heat. These are Oil lamp, electricity, gas, charcoal, e.t.c.
The number of days it takes for an egg to hatch depends on the specie of the bird. For our domestic chicken it takes just 21 days.
TYPES OF INCUBATORS
Natural draught/ table type
Forced draught or Cabinet type
(Read More about this)
CONDITIONS FOR INCUBATOR TO FUNCTION
Before fertilized eggs are placed, the incubator should have be run for about 12-24 hours. For eggs to hatch the incubator must meet the following atmospheric state;
Temperature of 37̊C-39̊C
Relative Humidity of 50%-70%
COMPONENTS OF AN INCUBATOR
An incubator is made up of a setter and a hatcher. The fertilized eggs stays in the setter for 18 days while for the remaining three days before hatching the eggs are placed in the hatcher.
The important parts of an incubator are as follows;
Heat source. As explained earlier it could be an electric heater, gas heater, e.t.c.
Control Unit that has heat thermostat, hygrometer (regulates humidity).
Heat distribution Unit. That has fans, heat extractor and ventilators.
Trays to hold eggs
Egg turning device.
Insulator to prevent heat loss.
NB: After hatching of egg the following is done;
Sexing of chicks(Separating the sexes).
Drying of chicks.
Intra ocular Newcastle Disease Vaccination.
Sorting out abnormal chicks.
Packaging of normal chicks.
TapGaugeVacuum ControllerTrap PailVacuum PumpMotorPowerTeat Cup
Fig 2.4: A Milking Machine
Pasteurization is the process at which milk is made fit for human consumption.
Economic Importance of Milk
It is a good and readily available source of protein especially for children.
It can be used to foster young mammals including humans.
It is used in the preparation of baby feeding formula.
It is used as extender for artificial insemination.
It is used in preparation of dairy products such as butter, cheese, yogurt, e.t.c.
OTHER EQUIPMENTS USED IN DAIRY CATTLE FARM
Health and Medical tools
Milk test cup
HARMFUL CONTAMINANTS OF MILK IN DAIRY FARMSt
Dirts from tools
Droplets from sick animals
TRACTOR COUPLED IMPLEMENTS
These are implements attached to a tractor to power it. Examples are ploughs, harrows, ridgers, planters, cultivators, harvesters, sprayer, mower, baler, fertilizer, applicator and harvester.
The plough is a tillage (Soil cultivation) implement. It is usually the first implement employed for land preparation.
There are two types;
Fig 2.1: Disc Plough
The Disc plough is a tilling implement adapted to tropical environment where the soil contains stones, hard parts and root of plants.
Parts of the Disc ploughs and their Functions
Beam or Frame: It holds disc in position or for attachment of the discs.
Scrapper: It helps to remove soil or mud that cling to the disc.
Standard: It holds the disc firmly to the beam.
Furrow wheel spring: It acts as a shock absorber for the plough during movement.
Frame extension: It covers the hollow end of the beam.
Read up Other Farm Implements, functions and their specific maintenance requirements from your Textbook!
a. Explain the following terms;
Primary Tillage implement, ii. Secondary tillage implement
i. State three reasons why disc plough is more suitable for soils in West Africa that Mouldboard plough. ii. List six major parts of a disc plough and functions.
Give three reasons why secondary tillage is necessary before sowing seeds.
State three precautions a farmer should take when spraying chemicals
(WASSCE; June 2007).
a. Give one function of each of the following components of an incubator.
Counter ii. Thermostat iii. Hygrometer iv. Egg tray v. Heater