Rights are legal entitlements that a citizen of a state enjoys. Also, human rights are privileges or freedom which the law allows. Human rights are liberties, immunities, and benefits which all human beings should be able to claim as of right in the society where they live.


  1. Rights o liberty and security.
  2. Right to life.
  3. Right to fair trials/ hearing.
  4. Right for respect for private and family life.
  5. Right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
  6. Right to peaceful assembly and association.
  7. Right to dignity of human person.
  8. Right to freedom from discrimination.
  9. Right to freedom of movement.
  10. Right to freedom of expression.


This refers to global proclamation specifying the rights of individuals. It is also the primary international expression of the fundamental inalienable rights of members of the human race.

It was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations Organization on December 10, 1948 in Paris, France.


Every human being has rights which the government and the state are duty bound to protect. These rights are not absolute. That is, they have some limitations.

Limitations simply means restrictions or a point beyond which it may not pass. The rights of citizens may be limited or restricted due to the following factors:

  1. COURT ORDER: A person may be denied of his life by court of law if he has taken the life of another person. Therefore, he may lose his own life for killing a fellow citizen.
  2. GOVERNMENT DESIRE: Citizens may be denied the right to own property like a gun. Also, their property such as land, may be acquired by the government for public use.
  3. TYPE OF GOVERNMENT: The type of government in a country determines if human rights will be observed or not. Democratic government guarantees human rights but military and dictatorial governments do not observe human rights. They put restrictions on every right.
  4. SECRET SOCIETY: Citizens have the rights to belong to any club, society or association of their choice. However, the law does not permit them to join secret societies. The existence of these societies threatens state security.
  5. LIBEL OR SLANDER: The right to freedom of expression can be denied a citizen. Citizens have no right to slander or libel another citizen.
  6. SECURITY REASON: The security agents like the police can arrest a person and detain him if he is seen as a threat to the security of a state.
  7. EMERGENCY PERIOD: Wars, outbreak of epidemics, flood, earthquake etc,are examples of emergency situations.When any of these situations occur, the rights of citizens are limited. Again, the government can declare state of emergency or curfew in a part of the country because of one reason or another. During the period, movement of people is restricted.