TOPIC ONE (COMMUNICATION SYSTEM)
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
Information technology (IT) is the study or use of systems (especially computers and telecommunications) for storing, retrieving, and sending information.
ICT is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them.
Types of ICT
1. Broadcasting:Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video content or other messages to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
2. Telecommunication: It is the transmission of messages over significant distance(s) for the purpose of communication. A basic telecommunication system consists of three primary units that are always present in some form:
· Transmitter: A transmitter takes information and converts it to a signal.
· Transmission medium: this is the physical channel that carries the signal.
· Receiver: A receiver takes the signal from the channel and converts it back to usable information.
3. Data Networks: A network is a connection of electronic devices especially the computers for the purpose of communication and sharing of resources. A data network is an electronic communication process that allows for the orderly transmission and reception of data. Such as letters, spreadsheets and other types of document.
4. Information Systems: the term information system is used to refer to the interaction between people, processes, data and technology. In this sense, the term is used to refer not only the information and communication technology (ICT) organization uses but also to the way in which people interact with technology in support of business processes. Examples of information systems are Management Information System (MIS), Decision Support System (DSS), Geographical Information System (GIS) etc.
5. Satellite communication: A satellite is a type of space craft that is launched into space and equipped with sensors to record and transmit information. Satellite TV is a broadcasting service that allows subscribers to receive television signals through a dish-shaped receiver unit.