By the end of the first world war (1914-1918), the states of the world saw the need to restore peace and prevent another war. As a result, in January 1919, a peace conference started at Versailles, France. The outcome of the peace conference, which was attended by 27 countries was the formation of the League of Nations in 1919. It had her headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. The League of Nations collapsed due to a number of problems.
Consequently, the United Nations Organization (UNO) came into existence in 1945. This was as a result of the failure of the League of Nations to prevent the outbreak of another war, that is, the second world war (1939-1945). On 25th April, 1945, fifty states gathered at San Francisco (the original plan had been decided upon by USA, Britain, USSR and China) to prepare the UNO charterwith the sole aim of saving succeeding generations from the scourge of war. The charter came into force (that is, the UNO was formed) on 24th October, 1945 with its headquarters in New York, USA.
Admission into the UNO is open to all peace loving nations of the world and currently, there are about 193 nations making up the body. Nigeria was the 99thmember of the UNO and was admitted after her independence in 1960.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE UNO
BASIC GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF THE UNO
In the bid to achieve the above aims and objectives, the members of the UNO are guided by the following principles:
ORGANS OF THE UNO AND THERE FUNCTIONS
The organization has 6 principal organs. These are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Secretariat, the Economic and Social Council, the International Court of Justice and the Trusteeship Council.
It is made up of all member states. Every member state is represented in the Assembly by not more than 5 persons. It holds her meetings once in a year but can hold a special session if the Security Council or majority of member states request for it. Her decisions are reached by two-thirds majority on important issues such as the admission of new members and by simple majority on other issues. A President is elected from one of the member states to head the Assembly for a term of one year and it is rotated among member states.
FUNCTIONS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
It is assumed to be the most powerful of all the organs of the UNO. It is composed of 5 permanent and 10 non-permanent members. The permanent members are the USA, Britain, France, China and Russia. The non-permanent members serve for 2years.Each member of the council has one vote and decisions on procedural matters are reached by a majority of 9 out of the 15 members while substantive issues (that is, issues that require immediate attention) are decided by 9 members plus all the permanent members. The permanent members have the veto power over substantive matters.
FUNCTIONS OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL
It is located at the headquarters of the UNO in New York, USA. The Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General. The Secretariat has 8 divisions and each is controlled by an Assistant Secretary-General. The Secretary-General stays in office for 5 years term and could be re-elected. The Secretaries-General of the UNO since inception are: Trygve Lie from Norway (1946-1952), Dag Hammarskjold from Sweden (1953-1961), U Thant from Burma (1961-1971), Kurt Waldheim from Austria (1972-1981), Javier Perez de Cuéllar from Peru (1982-1991), Boutros Boutros-Ghali from Egypt (1992-1996), Kofi Annan from Ghana (1997-2006), Ban Ki-moon from South Korea (2007-2016) and AntônioGueterres from Portugal (2017-present)
FUNCTIONS OF THE SECRETARIAT