Folding is one of the two major processes which lead to the formation of new landforms on the earth’s surface.

The other process which leads to the formation of new landforms is what is called Faulting.

Fold Mountains are formed by compressional forces acting on sedimentary rocks which push them into huge and complex structures.

During the process of formation, the compressional forces act horizontally along the surface layers of the earth.

Folding is caused by large scale earth movement when stresses are set up in the earth’s crust and large crystal blocks called tectonic plates move towards each other. This makes sedimentary rocks to be pushed into up folds and down folds.

The up folds are called anticlines while the down folds are called synclines.


The major examples of Fold Mountains are the Rocky Mountains (U.S.A.), Himalayas Mountains (Asia), Andes Mountains (South America) and the Cape Ranges (South Africa).

TO DO AT HOME: Draw the diagram of a fold mountain showing the up fold and the down fold.