Pressure groups:

Pressure groups:A pressure group refers to any group of people with Common interest or profession engaging in activities that will influence government policies to their own benefit. They do not contest in election like political parties but support any party that will fight their cause.e.g Nigeria union of Teachers (NUT), Nigeria union of Journalist (NUJ), Nigeria Bar Association (NBA)etc.

Functions of pressure groups

1.They help in promoting economic stability.

2.They promote and provide some general welfare services.

3.They make government pay attention to people’s needs.

4.They educate their members and the public.

5.They promote and protect interest of members.


   Pillars of democracy refers to the essential elements necessary for successful practice of democracy in a nation.

   Pillars of democracy are the structures that must be in place for democracy to survive.

   Pillars of democracy include the following:

(1) The people

(2) The Constitution

(3) Transparent electoral

(4) Fundamental human rights

(5) Accountability and Transparency

(6) The rule of law

(1) THE PEOPLE: Democracy centres around the people going by the definition of democracy by Abraham Lincoln which says “democracy is the government of the people by the people and for the people. This definition shows the role of the people of a nation in making democracy work. The people here represent the citizen of a country. People contributed in making democracy work by performing the following roles:

(a) Willingness to embrace democracy.

(b) Participation in election.

(c) Willingness to join political parties.

(d) Obedience to Constitution.

(e) Respect for fundamental human rights.

(f) Regular payment of tax.

(2) THE CONSTITUTION: The tenets of democracy of a nation, the democracy principles, limitations,privileges and definitions are usually captured in the Constitution.The various ways and means of democratic governance and practices of a people are usually entrenched in the Constitution. The words as written in the Constitution are solemn words of agreement by the people and their representatives to abide with in the management of the country.

(3) Transparent electoral process: This implies a free and fair election. A transparent electoral process helps in sustaining democracy in the following ways:

(I) It encourages political participation.

(ii) It reduces electoral malpractices to the minimum.

(III) It helps in ensuring capable leaders are elected in the right offices

(iv) It encourages and leads to political development.

  It should be noted that for all these to happen, the political parties should play their roles properly and an independent electoral body should be allowed to fully supervise the electoral process. None of the arms of government should use it’s power directly or indirectly influence the electoral body.

          CLASS TEST

(1) Mention (5) five pillars of democracy.

(2) Identity (3) three ways people contributed in making democracy work in the country.

(3) Highlight (2) two ways electoral process helps in sustaining democracy.

ASSIGNMENT: Discuss the following pillars of democracy:

(I) Fundamental human rights.

(ii) The rule of law.

(III) Accountability and Transparency.